In 2009, Adebayor made Arsenal 25million after signing a five-year contract with Manchester City
English footballer Peter Crouch currently plays as a striker for Premier League club Tottenham Hotspur and the England national team.. With the total transfer fees of 30.65million, Defoe is named as one of the most expensive English Premier League players
Being the eleventh highest goal scorer in the history of the Premier League with 122 goals, there is no surprise when Robbie Keane is named as one of the most expensive English Premier League m88 players.
Peter Crouch – Total: 33.65m
Craig Bellamy is now playing for Cardiff City.
Samuel Etoo Offered Highest Salary in Football World
Nicolas Anelka is considered as the second most expensive player ever behind Cristiano Ronaldo
Scoring over 300 goals in his 17-year career, Crespo once held the world record in transfer fee when he was bought by Lazio from Parma for 35.4 million pounds in July 2000.
Darren Bent has proved that he is worth the money when he completed his move to Villa and made the club record 18 million bid for him on 17 January 2011.
Craig Bellamy is now playing for Cardiff City. Cristiano Ronaldo is also regarded as the highest paid player in the game.
Jermain Defoe – Total: 30.65m
Top High Paid Football Stars in World Cup 2010
Defoe is now playing as striker for English Premier League club Tottenham Hotspur and the England national football team. He is also playing as a striker for the Welsh national team. He was bought by Manchester United from Tottenham for 30.75 million pounds in 2008.
Highest-paid National Hockey League Players
Hernan Crespo – Total: 68.77m
Emmanuel Adebayor – Total: 32m
Keane is now playing as a striker for Premier League club Tottenham Hotspur
Emmanuel Adebayor currently plays for Manchester City as a striker. In 2009, Adebayor made Arsenal 25million after signed a five-year contract with Manchester City
Darren Bent- Total: 56m
Nicolas Anelka Total: 86.5m
Cristiano Ronaldo Total: 92.24m
Due to perfect performance, football players such as Nicolas Anelka, Cristiano Ronaldo, Robbie Keane, Robbie Keane, Darren Bent and so on have made expensive transfer fees when they decided to move from these teams to other teams. Cristiano Ronaldo is also regarded as the highest paid player in the game.
Hernan Crespo is an Argentine footballer, who plays for Parma in the Italian Serie A.
Dimitar Berbatov plays as a striker for Manchester United of England. Nicolas has built an aggregate transfer cost of up to 90 million pounds during his transfers over the years.
Robbie Keane – Total: 70.3m
Dimitar Berbatov – Total: 41.65m
With an aggregate transfer cost of up to 92.24 million pounds, Cristiano Ronaldo has become the most expensive player in soccer history
Is it unsporting behavior to run up the score against inferior opposition? In Chelsea’s case, it was easy to justify, as goal difference could have been the difference between them winning and not winning the league. During the 2009-2010 Barclays English Premier League season, eventual champions Chelsea put 7 past Stoke, Aston Villa, and Sunderland, and 8 past Wigan (who also lost 9-1 to Tottenham Hotspur). Unterhaching’s David Zdrilic got 8 goals. Part of you wants them to stop, while another part wants them to continue to tear them apart. ‘I’ve got to tell you they are woeful’, said David Smith, their Australian liason officer, ‘the reserves of a seventh division amateur side would beat them.’ And their opponents were Australia. But it wasn’t a victory to be proud of. The match between AS Adema and SOE, however, should be taken with a pinch of salt, as the extraordinary result only came about as a result of a strange protest.
12th September 1885. Australia 31-0 American Samoa.
In American Samoa’s entire history as an international football team they had managed only one victory. Their invitation was meant to go to Orion FC, who wouldn’t have beaten Arbroath (in fact Orion faced Bon Accord’s opponents two years later and lost 18-0) but at least they played the same m88 sport as them. In fact, the victory could have been by a much greater margin had the referee, Dave Storment, not chalked off 7 goals for offside. Dundee Harp 35-0 Aberdeen Rovers. Sources
Sunday Herald, The, Jan 19, 2003 by Natasha Woods
Telegraph, The, April 14, 2001 by Mark Jeffreys
Guardian, The, November 29, 2002
Every now and again football throws up some terribly one-sided matches. In a pre-season friendly in 2009, Spanish side Villareal beat third division Navata 27-0. Archie Thompson equalled John Petrie’s world record with 13 (he would have broken it but for a disallowed goal). Results like these are horrible for fans of the losing team, but are peversely enjoyable for the neutral. Their manager, Ratismandresy Ratsarazaka, in a bizzare protest against decisions that had cost his team the league, had ordered his players to repeatedly fire shots into their own net from the kickoff. This was always going to be an absolute mauling and Australia refused to show them any mercy. Australia, who were ranked 128 places above them. The manger was subsequently suspended by the Madagascar football federation for three years, while SOE players Mamisoa Razafindrakoto, Manitranirinana Andrianiaina, Nicolas Rakotoarimanana, and Dominique Rakotonandrasana were suspended until the end of the 2002 season.. That came against the mighty Wallis and Futuna in 1983. Australia, who had just beaten Tonga 22-0. The majority of their national team had just been declared ineligible by FIFA over passport issues, and they were unable to call up their under 20 players to replace them, as most of them were sitting highschool exams. The following is a list of the highest winning margins of all time. It is harder to support such practice in cup matches, as was the case in three of the games below. Incredibly, on the exact same day and only 18 miles away, Dundee Harp defeated Aberdeen Rovers 35-0. They effectively had to play with a third choice eleven, which had an average age of 18 and included two 15 year olds. As Samoa’s coach Lui noted, ‘We don’t know what Australia were trying to prove scoring all those goals.’ In the end, Australia’s massive win didn’t do them any good. The referee had originally counted 37 goals, but Dundee insisted they had only scored 35, an act of honesty they were to regret upon hearing the result of Arbroath’s match.
11th April 2001. 18-year-old John Petrie scored 13 of those 36 (still a record for a single match) while Jim Milne Jr, Bon Accord’s goalkeeper, spent most of the match trying to avoid the rain underneath an umbrella. It is not as impossible, however, to score 149 own goals which Malagsy club SOE proved during a match against AS Adema in the TBH Champions League in 2002. Despite scoring 73 goals in the qualifiers, they were defeated 3-1 in a playoff against Uruguay, missing out on an a place at the 2002 World Cup in Japan/South Korea.
31st October 2002. For some reason, the referee didn’t abandon the game, and the players kept this up relentlessly for the entire match
I wanted to coach a top, traditional Bundesliga club.
“Jurgen Klopp had seven unbelievably successful seasons here. “I want an atmosphere that is characterised by hard work, dedication andfree of egoism.I know I can rely on andtrust this m88 club. I’m looking forward to seeing that.”
“It’s extremely important that we rise to the challenge of making up that ground. We will now try to create a new chapter at a high level,” he said at his unveiling.
The 47-year-old stood aside following a successful seven-year stint at the Westfalenstadion and was replaced by his fellow former Mainz boss
The former Mainz boss is delighted to have landed the Dortmund job and is keen to forge his own identity at Signal Iduna Park
“There is a style of football here which is based on attacking anddominating play. The topfour need to constantly feel our presence
Thomas Tuchel says he wants to build upon the foundations laid by Jurgen Klopp’s during his spell at Borussia Dortmund and take the team back to the top of the Bundesliga.
Tuchel has praised the coach who led BVB to two Bundesliga titles and a Champions League final and feels that all the ingredients for a memorable period in the club’s history are in place.
“Dortmund are at the forefront of the German game but we have some ground to make up on the other teams and that is a challenge.. That was an important factor in why I came here.
“Klopp created a great foundation. It’s about hard work, courage and tenacity. We must build on that.I have a great desire to build andcreate my own image here.
“I’m overjoyed to be officially presented as Dortmund coach”
Ribery, meanwhile, has been sidelined since March with a persistent ankle problem but he is expected to be given the green light imminently to resume full training.
“Having the two of them back would be great for our fun88 game!”
Speaking after Sunday’s 5-1 demolition of Borussia Dortmund, Rummenigge stated: “On Arjen, I hope that he could come back into the team after the international break.
The Dutchman could make his comeback immediately after the international break, while his French colleague is nearing the end of his injury nightmare
Bayern Munich CEO Karl-Heinz Rummenigge has revealed both Arjen Robben and Franck Ribery are almost ready to return to action.
Robben tore an adductor muscle on September 3 but played a full part in training on Monday and is set to make his comeback after the international break, in the Bundesliga clash with Werder Bremen on October 17.
“As for Franck, he will come back soon. He has been back running in training for a long time now.
Despite being shorn of the services of two of their key players, Bayern have been in impeccable form so far this season – they are currently seven points clear at the top of the Bundesliga after opening their campaign with eight successive wins.
If the tote board suggests that the public is overlooking these mitigating circumstances, make your play.
Instead of blindly betting all horses breaking from the inside, you might use this to supplement your handicapping, paying particular attention to the inside horse, and betting it when you like the horse on other handicapping grounds. None of them work.
Horse Racing System #5 – Bet Horses breaking from the inside post in route races. It must follow, therefore, that if we bet the best horse that has started at least twice, we stand an excellent chance of beating the takeout, particularly in races that have several first and second time starters.
In fact, pedigree does not generally offer wager value with one curious exception: well bred horses do surprisingly well in maiden claiming races. This is another mistake that bettors make: in a race with a clear standout, many people give up on the win pool and bet their choice to place, thinking that they’ll get paid even if the favorite wins.
Horse Racing System #2 – Bet horses that have an excuse for a poor performance in their last race. Because speed figures have gained in popularity over the years, anyone following that system now would have trouble coming up with gas money for the ride home from the track.
Horse Racing System #3 – In maiden claiming races, bet the horse with the best pedigree. My study suggests that’s not the case.
Second, the very nature of the parimutuel system itself means that any profits to be made from following a particular set of rules will quickly be arbitraged away as the followers of that system drive down the odds of horses chosen by the system.
This causes the favorite to be under bet in the place pool, leading to a profit opportunity for us to take advantage of by betting the favorite to place. My own studies have shown a similar advantage for the inside post in routes.
However, just because systems won’t make you rich doesn’t mean there’s no place for them at all in a horseplayer’s arsenal. To the extent that most handicappers use pedigree at all, it’s usually to identify horses that may improve when switched to the turf, or those who may be expected to win as first time starters. I was able to replicate this result in my own study of nearly 100,000 races conducted a decade later.
In the first place, the parimutuel takeout in horse racing is large (over 15%) and the mutuel pools are relatively efficient, so that even systems with a strong basis in reality can’t overcome the size of the takeout.
For instance, many speed figure handicappers reported making horse racing profits in the 60′s and 70′s simply by betting horses with the best last race speed figure. The inside post in turf routes actually showed a small profit, but this was based on a small sample size and cannot be relied upon. Most people who love horse racing would be thrilled just to win a little more and lose a little less on their trips to the track.
Horse Racing System #1 – In maiden races, bet the horse with the best last race speed figure that has had at least two career starts. It should go without saying that you should actually like the favorite’s chances after evaluating the race with your own handicapping.
Nunamaker reported that the inside post in dirt route races won at a 20% greater than expected rate, and lost only 10 cents on the dollar, much better than the track take. Thanks for reading, and see you in the winner’s circle.
Looking for a dead simple horse racing system that will allow you to quit your job and make a living betting the horses in just 10 minutes a day? Good luck with that!
Look for comment lines like “bled”, “lost rider”, “clipped heels”, “stumbled”, “steadied”, “between horses”, “rank”, and “jumped shadows” that suggest that a horse’s last race was not indicative of its true ability. Let me let you in on a little secret about these “magic formulas”. Just don’t expect to quit your day job.. How do we identify the best pedigree, then? If you’re using the DRF past performances, use the stud fee as a proxy for quality, and the Tomlinson figure to judge suitability for the distance and surface. This system takes advantage of one of the few glaring inefficiencies in the parimutuel pools, namely that first and second time starters are badly over-bet.
The horse with the best last race speed figure (whether Beyer, BRIS, or Equibase) may not be the best horse in the race, but he’s probably not far off, so we can use that as a proxy for selection purposes.
In that spirit. My computer studies of pedigree, based on nearly 100,000 races, suggest that using pedigree in that manner offers no advantage to the player.
Horse Racing System #4 – Bet low-priced favorites to place. Few bother to even look at the comment line for the race, let alone take the trouble to seek out and watch the replay of the race. The horse with the best combination of the two is the play.
For as long as humans have bet on horse racing there have been system sellers trying to con the gullible into parting with their hard earned money with the lure of easy profits to be made on the sport of kings. The inside post combined with early speed is a particularly potent combination, since the horse will not have to exert himself as much to gain his preferred position at the front of the pack.
First time starters return only about 60 cents on the dollar, and second time starters are only a little better, returning less than 70 cents on the dollar. With the BRIS pp’s you can use the Sire Production Factor in concert with the pedigree rating. This is somewhat counter-intuitive since you’d expect that horses with good pedigrees that end up in the maiden claiming ranks probably can’t run at all. They will, however increase the chances of a profitable day at the races by ensuring that your wager dollars go where they have the best chance of success. This offers opportunity to more diligent players.
None of these systems will make you rich, or even guarantee that you will make a profit. In most case the public seems to take a horse’s last running line at face value. I’ve identified some of the most useful handicapping factors that have a proven history of doing much better than the track takeout and put them together with some simple rules that should make your trips to the racetrack more fun and profitable. One of the few anomalies turned up by Michael Nunamaker in his pioneering computer study “Modern Impact Values”, published in 1994, was that horses breaking from the inside post position in route races won more than their fair share of races, and were under-bet by the public
If both teams’ scores add up to more than 45, you win, less than, you lose.
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Money line wagers are placed for a team to win the game.
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A very good qualified tipsters web site having a established track record of accomplishment and verified tipster profiles would go a long way in helping you develop extended lasting success. They’ll see past outcomes, statistics, the kind book and a lot of other issues prior to drawing a conclusion. The winners are that group of individuals who don’t place bets merely on guess operate or try their luck. That is certainly since the bookmarker doesn’t leave the door open from exactly where he will be within a loss making scenario. The authorities will usually possess the finest chance at winning.
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You would never ever have heard a bookie losing cash, it can be normally the punter that wins or loses as well as the bookie stands to earn in each situations
H2 Gambling Capital has released the list of biggest gambling countries due to average gaming losses.
Top Online Gambling Mistakes
Era of Online Gambling
The potash-rich province of Saskatchewan is home to the biggest gamblers in Canada. Furthermore, the slot machines named pokies are the most favorite game in Australia with an estimated number of 75-80 percent of problem gamblers. In this country, gaming companies bet people on whether the central bank’s interest will increase or not. Reportedly, over 75 percent of adult Canadians took part in the games last year in which the most popular games are lotteries and Scratch and Win cards.
The most favorite gambling activity in Italy is electronic gaming machine.
Australia is the craziest country when it comes to gaming and gambling. Otherwise, Australia is the only country that allows online bets on sports but prevents gamblers from using the Internet to place bets during live games.
Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,288
Interestingly enough, the country’s national lottery company, Veikkaus, belongs to the government and is operated by the ministry of education. According to business advisory firm MAG Consulenti Associati, the electronic gaming makes up half of Italy’s total gaming revenues in first half of 2011.
Gaming Losses Per Adult: $553
Gaming Losses Per Adult: $517
Gambling’s Famous Icons
Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,174
Australia: Biggest Gambling Country in the World. Most profits go to education, arts and culture.
Singapore offered the very first casino some years ago which then became the world’s third largest-gaming center after Macau and Las Vegas. Although the government has imposed an entry fee of S$100 ($80.50) for citizens entering the casino, the country’s gaming revenue is expected to hit $6.4 billion in 2011 and outpace Las Vegas.
Gaming Losses Per Adult: $568
Las Vegas is well-known as the gambling industry of the world; however, American people are not the biggest gamblers on Earth
Its simply a matter of consistently following the betting system.
Everyone knows that the favorites have a high chance of winning a race right? What Ali’s system does is to select only certain types of favorites that have even a much higher chances of winning. For a betting system, believe me, that’s pretty revolutionary!
He answers the questions of why place betting on favorites is simply the quickest way to profit from horse racing betting. Most never even try a betting system, something which is essential to actually make a consistent profit on horse betting.
Horse Racing Betting Systems – Do they Work?
Let me assure you that the betting system is written in plain English and it’s easy enough for a 11 year old to use. Its already been extensively used in America, Hong Kong, Canada, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, UK and most of Europe for over 13 years by thousands of people. What he’s referring to is consistently profiting week after week and year after year from punting. Doing it this way is going to take you 18 hours a day of research just to figure out which horses may produce the goods. Does anyone really have the spare time to do this consistently? Call me lazy but why make things hard for yourself betting on hard to pick non favorites when you can very, very easily profit from the favorites!
First off all let me clarify something, when he talks about making money from horse racing betting, he’s not talking about a few freak or lucky wins in a month. I can say in all honesty that as a former frustrated punter it is well worth the time checking out this information. I’ve been ripped off before with horse racing betting systems so I understand exactly where you’re coming from. He lays the complete betting system out before you, why bet on favorites and why for a place? The answer…
Don’t get me wrong. However investing on certain favorites that have passed a set of Ali’s betting system rules will definitely set the odds in your favor in a very big way!
He then put these horses through a set of betting system simple rules to eliminate any risks they may be carrying. Few betting systems deliver on what they promise. The guy shows you how he maintained a win strike rate of 89.52% and a place strike rate of 96.35% using his own betting system.
If you want to be shown a step-by-step outline of exactly how you can use Ali’s betting system, How to ‘Place Bets’ on Favorites for a Living, to consistently earn an income from horse racing betting, then head on over to the website at http://www.horsebetpro.com
So the Horse racing betting system in a nutshell goes something like this:-
I recently came across Mohammed Ali’s Betting system, How to ‘Place Bets’ on Favorites for a Living. You’ve sent away for stuff that never quite reached you, or you bought something and it didn’t live up to its expectations. In the limited space I have available in this article there’s no way I can fully convince you about how much you can learn from this guys betting system. Ok now don’t go all skeptical on me at this point. Its safe, quick and easy… Occasionally they will get lucky and succeed.
Ali’ betting system can be applied to any gallop horse race in the world. The word here is lucky, in the long run they will certainly lose money. It is theoretically possible to make a consistent profit on investing in high priced non favorites at the track. it’s so easy that at times it feels almost unfair. With How to ‘Place Bets’ on Favorites for a Living , you don’t need any prior horse betting or statistics knowledge. The twist is, you don’t even bet for a win! By betting for a place only you dramatically increase the odds in your favor. When you bet on well priced non-favorites, you are effectively betting against the odds. This is a betting system that really delivers.
There are lots of so called Horse Racing betting systems out there. Also why place betting on favorites is the safest and easiest way to profit from horse racing betting. Plus it takes only 10-20 minutes to use on any race day. The majority of punters that lose money on horse racing try to make big sums of money from just a few dollars. What you end up with is a set of very secure favorites that have an extremely high chance of winning
What are the adverse effects of gambling? How does it affect society? Should gambling be legal? We don’t think so and here we bring you an article that discusses the reasons why gambling should be illegal.
Internet Gambling Facts and Problems
What do you know about Internet gambling? Are you aware of the problems associated with it? Read on to know them and find some alarming facts about online gambling, in this article.
Impact of Internet Gambling
So many of us are attracted to gambling online. Some of us are addicted to the habit, without even knowing that. With so many…
Negative Effects of Gambling
Gambling is the act of betting money with the expectation of profits. How does gambling affect an individual? What are its effects on society? Read this Buzzle article to know about the negative impact of gambling.. The thrill in betting money and that excitement in the uncertainty of winning or losing it is addictive
Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership. I truly appreciate it.
The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”. They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American. They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”. More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.
By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.
In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died. In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive.
The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning. Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”) for “the beginning”. It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).
Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people.
Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams. It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse). One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background). He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him. To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.
The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in. Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.
This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.
Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation. In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues. Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected. Further confirmation testing in 1989 proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.
By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor. A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay).
Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there. She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill. Her symptoms confounded her colleagues. She died in December 1977. Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive. During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.
Dugas remained unrepentant. He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually. His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex. Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.” His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves. They know what’s going on out there. They’ve heard about this disease.” The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer. I’m going to die and so are you.”
This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV.
Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities. His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.
The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old). He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened. His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically. The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised. He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ). His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”
Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”. Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors. An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh). [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.]
He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.
Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research. It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted. Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS.
Gateway to the West
In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived. Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities. Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men. They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco. [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).
Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. .
Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples. In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive
Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966. Other strains have been isolated as well. As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much).
Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.
Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”.
Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.
Less Than Zero
Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary. What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously. It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966.
The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within. Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54′s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself.
The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture. Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island. Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”.
On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.
Good investigative work requires dogged determination. Running an enigma to ground can take years.
Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem. And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.
The airline industry developed glamour. The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless. These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime. Therefore, they must be promiscuous. The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring. Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses. The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day). Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.
Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.
“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”
In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants. They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality. “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.
As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active. Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic. His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body.
He started out as a hairdresser. Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual. He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job. He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada. This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters. In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.
A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though. Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests. This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”. It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly. Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.
A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances. He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect. In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim. Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa). Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.
In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.
Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31. His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.
He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time). [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]
Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment. [Rubell later died of AIDS.]
From a front-line perspective
Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. . Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.
Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well. Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.
Gay men realized the danger. Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent. Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others. They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men. Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).
The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. Louis.
This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject. One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case. Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America.
AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans. IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive.
The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men. These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials. As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male. World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too.
He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well. In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen. It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame). The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort. It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).
There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry. At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.
The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version. One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871. HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922. Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.
In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.
First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners. After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed. This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest. When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer. Maybe you’ll get it.”
Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio. He came to the US in 1927. He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan. He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue. Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case. Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS? “You bet . . . It was so unusual at the time . The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen. He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”. He also had shortness of breath. His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems). This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.
This makes little sense.
The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”. Certainly, they were paid less. There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.
Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep).
Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses. He was blond, voluble, and open. Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls. He took on whatever he felt like. As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts. [The quintessential version of "The Clone Look" would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen's lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.]
Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St.
Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind. As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID). This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system. It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims. It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.
As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida. It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history.
Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS). In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died.
The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS. That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.
Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did. This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed.
For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust.
Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards. Stewardesses, however, were very desirable. They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man. In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.
His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling. Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs. Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate.
Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953. His life was on a collision course with history. In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active. [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown. He may have been bisexual.]
Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54. This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world. Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there. Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity. No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54. Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies.
Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick. He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”. But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious. He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him. His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice. His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.
Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim. As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.
AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”
Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.
Mr. It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away. In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved. Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected. This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not). Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.
There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?). Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ ["zero"] instead.
But, it doesn’t end there.
He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active. His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr. Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.
Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America.
Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless. At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).
In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease. In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa. He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea. He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa. In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections. By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver.
The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene. The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.
One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America. As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate. As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount. Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men.
AIDS now had a face.
The End of Days was seemingly at hand.
The Road to Zero. Memory Elvin Lewis
Dr. Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. Louis, Missouri. His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George. Rayford was described as slender. His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness.
And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history.
Update note:Dr. Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture. He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough.
The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants. This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service. Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press. It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role
A shark vs minnow environment could ensue. It seems to be more of a shoehorn solution where the industry is responding to the opportunity by trying to make eSports fit into what they know. in my opinion, casino operators need to answer that question with more than “because we want them to be”. Presumably, these will enable a new level of head-to-head, skill-based competitions, playing true eSports titles. We have some interesting ideas on how to address skill-disparities, but we’re keeping that under wraps for now ;).
Sellke: Like a lot of big incumbents, I am concerned that the casino industry has become complacent, or worse, lazy. Solving it will mean things have to change!
Adam Sellke: We’re currently seeing skill-based, first-person gambling games coming onto casino floors. A potential downside to this might be that without rank verification, fees would be the only way to set or “regulate” skill level matches.
Also, companies like Ourgame are opening large 14,000 square foot, 200 seat arenas in places like Beijing and Las Vegas. I fundamentally disagree that eSports should be considered gambling. Most of these early examples aren’t that innovative and look a little uninspired.
I personally think they should because casinos should be about grown-up entertainment. We have some ideas that we’re not yet seeing out there, so it’s a very exciting time for us.
Hickey Jr.: What games do you think would work best in a casino?
Patrick Hickey Jr.: How would eSports work in a casino?. If it’s fun for free, it’s even more so for money.
Esports is a watershed moment for the casino industry, but the industry will have to step out of its comfort zone in order to make it work for them.
Hickey Jr.: What’s wrong with the casino industry and how could eSports help “fix” things?
Sellke: I am not sure they should be… That’s definitely the first step, but I’m not necessarily a big proponent of these machines. For example, companies like GameCo are licensing games for deployment in Atlantic City later this year. chats with Evolve Labs Founder Adam Sellke, who discusses the possible impact of eSports on casino culture.The founder/ co-founder of several startups (Surtsey, Madoi, Ripshark, Tunebloom, Evolve Labs and more), Sellke has served in individual contributor and management roles at Merck, BBDO, Carlson Companies, UnitedHealth Group and Best Buy. In a recent piece Sellke wrote on Gamasutra, he outlines why the Casinbusinessss must begin to adapt to reach a new sort of clientele and in this chat with Examiner, he takes it a step further, elaborating how eSports can play a role in that adaptation.
Sellke: All you gotta do is look at your top MOBAs and other competitive titles. and then committing to solve it. Perhaps a seat could be assessed various entry “fees”, where a higher entry fee would essentially correspond to tougher competition (similar to what you see in poker rooms). What form that entertainment takes is yet to be determined. First off, they call them “VGMs” or video game gambling machines. Fixing it starts with acknowledging a problem… They don’t have the appeal that “real” eSports games have all over the world.
For more information on Evolve Labs, click here.
Hickey Jr.: Why should eSports be in a casino?
What if the answer is they shouldn’t be? What should casinos do to still participate in this shift in entertainment?
National Video Games Examiner Patrick Hickey Jr. Secondly, these game titles aren’t part of any bona fide eSports franchises. That’s death. And competitive eSports for money should be only allowed amongst grown-ups (or pros). I haven’t seen how matchmaking would work, though
Danny Lee has one win on tour and he finished tied for 18th last week. After missing the cut in his two previous starts, Jimmy Walker tied for 24th last week. Ryan Palmer missed the cut last week. Then a few notable golfers with much higher odds are listed along with comments why.
T-13. Kevin Chappell – 28 to 1
T-19. Bill Haas, Ryan Palmer – 45 to 1 odds each
4. Scott won this tournament in 2014 beating Jason Dufner in a playoff.
Good luck to all the PGA golfers and especially the bettors this week at the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational at Colonial in Fort Worth, Texas!
T-7. Zach Johnson does have two wins in this tournament (2010, 2012).
Boo Weekley – 80 to 1 odds
5. Charley Hoffman – 25 to 1
At age 29, Kevin Chappell is still looking for his first PGA Tour win. Colt Knost, Tony Finau, Marc Leishman, Kevin Kisner, Patton Kizzire – 50 to 1 odds each
The Dean & DeLcua Invitational dates back to 1946. Kevin Na, Louis Oosthuizen, Patrick Reed, Jim Furyk – 33 to 1 odds each
Listed below are the betting odds and comments for each player who has odds of 50 to 1 or less to win this week. He has three PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2010.
1. Matt Kuchar has not won a PGA Tour event in over two years now and he should be higher odds to win this week.
2. Patton Kizzire is 30 and still looking for his first PGA Tour win.
Adam Scott finished tied for 12th at the Players two weeks ago in his last start. At age 32, Kevin Kisner has one career win and he missed the cut in his last two starts. Chappell also finished alone in 2nd place at the RSM Classic and the Arnold Palmer this season so he’s been close to winning but he’s still a maiden on tour.
Jason Bohn only has two career wins and his last win was in 2010 and he’s missed the cut in his last three PGA Tour starts. Jimmy Walker, Brandt Sendeker, Danny Lee, Jason Dufner – 40 to 1 odds each
Kevin Na has one career win in 314 starts. But Jason Bohn did finish tied for 2nd in this tournament last year just one stroke off the lead.
T-17. Matt Kuchar – 14 to 1
At odds of 6 to 1, Jordan Spieth is the betting favorite this week to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational. Players like Phil Mickelson, Lee Trevino and Zach Johnson are tied for the second most wins with two each.
Since winning the Texas Open for his 4th PGA Tour win on April 21st, Charley Hoffman finished 11th at the Zurich Classic, missed the cut at the Players and finished tied for 12th last week at the Byron Nelson. Louis Oosthuizen’s lone PGA win remains the 2010 British Open and he missed the cut last week.
Chris Kirk is the defending champion in this tournament but that was the last of his four PGA Tour wins. Haas has six PGA Tour wins and he was second at the Valspar in March so he’s a mild threat to win this week. Jim Furyk has one win on tour since 2010 and he’s making just his third start back after wrist surgery. Here is a list of the betting odds for the PGA golfers to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational.
6. In his last four tournaments he’s failed to crack the top 25 and he finished last week tied for 66th. Charl Schwartzel tied for 58th place last week but that was his first tournament since he missed the cut at the Masters. Zach Johnson – 22 to 1
Jason Dufner has a win in 2016 and he’s finished second in this tournament twice in the past (2012, 2014). Jordan Spieth was in position to win last week at the Byron Nelson playing with Brooks Koepka in the final pairing Sunday just two strokes back but Spieth shot a 74 and ended up tied for 18th place. Schwartzel won the Valspar Championship in March and he could play well this week.
Other than a 5th place finish at the Arnold Palmer in March, Zach Johnson has not played well enough to win in 2016. Could he win again this year? Maybe, but who wants to bet on it?
David Toms won this tournament in 2011. On top of that, Bohn suffered a heart attack during the Honda Classic back in February. While the meltdown is not a good sign, Jordan Spieth did miss the cut the week before at the Players in his first start since the Masters so he is rounding into form and he did tie for 2nd place in this tournament last year.
T-11. Marc Leishman has one career win in 188 starts. That was the last of his three PGA Tour wins.
3. Kirk missed the cut in his last start at the Players. He’s a mild threat here to get his 6th PGA win here. Brandt Snedeker has missed the cut in his last two starts and in three of his last four tournaments but he did tie for 2nd place here last year just one stroke off the lead.
Jason Bohn – 100 to 1 odds
The 2016 Dean & DeLuca golf tournament on the PGA Tour is taking place this week from May 26-29, 2016, at the Colonial Country Club located in Fort Worth, Texas. Adam Scott – 11 to 1. Toms has 13 career PGA Tour wins including a major but he’s not won a tournament since 2011.
Boo Weekley won this tournament in 2013. Chappell is lower odds here because he finished alone in 2nd place at the Players in his last start. Jordan Spieth – 6 to 1
Matt Kuchar shot -14 under last week to finish alone in 3rd place at the Byron Nelson. Patrick Reed has finished alone in 2nd place three times this season but has not won a tournament since January of 2015. Don’t be fooled, though, as Kuchar also finished 3rd at the Players but that is not winning. Tony Finau tied for 12th last week. He won the Puerto Rico Open for his first career win at the end of March. Chris Kirk, Charl Schwartzel – 35 to 1 odds each
Colt Knost is 30 and he’s yet to win on tour but he tied for 3rd at the Players and was 4th last week in his last two starts. Nuff said. Adam Scott has two wins in 2016 and 13 total wins on the PGA Tour. Ben Hogan holds the record for most wins in the tournament with five. He’s a big threat this week to win.